Drug Discovery and Development
Drug discovery is the process by whic new candidate medications are discovered. Historically, drugs were discovered through identifying the active ingredient from traditional remedies or by seredipitious discovery. Later, synthetic small molecules, natural products are extracts were screened in intact cells or whole organism to identify substances that have a desirable therapeutic effect in a process known as classical pharmacology. Since sequencing of human genome which allowed rapid cloning and synthesis of large quantities of purified porteins, it has become common practise to use high throuhput screening of large compounds libraries agaonst isolated biological targets which are hypothesized to be disease modifying ina process called reverse pharmacology. Once a drug is discovered,researchers undergo an experiments to gather informations,to find how the compound is absorbed, distribute, metabolized, its mechanism of action, best dosage, best way to give the drug(oral or injection), side effects, comparision to similar drugs.